Continuous Integration – Single Code Line

A common practice in SCM is to create multiple branches (code lines) from a stable baseline, allow teams to work in isolation on these feature branches until they meet some quality gate. The feature branch can then be merged into the baseline to form a release. I find this approach abhorrent in almost all cases. My three main objections are:

1. Multiple active code lines force a conservative approach to design improvement (refactoring)

While there is more than one active code line most teams will defer any widespread design improvement, as any widespread change will be difficult to merge. This means that emergent design and refactoring do not occur, and the software will build further inconsistency and duplication. This effect must not be underestimated – effectively it’s another source of fear, preventing the teams from moving forward.

2. Deferring integration of code lines usually leads to high risk late in delivery

The longer an isolated code line lives, the more pain and risk incurred when merging. This risk can be largely mitigated if the teams are disciplined in regularly merging changes into the feature branches from baseline. However most teams I’ve observed aren’t very disciplined in this regard, and this risk becomes a real issue.

3. Multiple active code lines works against collective code ownership

Teams working in isolation on a separate code line share their work with other teams as late as possible. This leads to code ownership problems, and inconsistency. The code introduced by an isolated team is often quite clearly different to the rest of the codebase, and is disowned by other developers working on other branches.

Other issues with multiple code lines:

  • complexity can cause significant errors that may not be caught by automated or manual testing, risking production stability.
  • it is very difficult to consistently spread good technical practices (automated testing, coding standard)
  • it works against the CI principle of production-ready increments – isolated branches are often used as excuses to leave the software in a broken state for some period of time, instead of working out how to implement a major change incrementally.

But what if I’m working on a feature that isn’t going to be ready in time for the next release? Firstly, are there any smaller increments that we can release to production and get benefit earlier? If not, then we need to release partial work into production, without it changing the current behaviour of the production system until the feature is complete and can be activated. This involves the introduction of ‘feature toggles’ – configuration that disables the new feature implementation in production until it is ready.

This doesn’t have to be runtime configuration – simple switches introduced to environment-specific config files will usually be enough. There is a cost in introducing this conditional behaviour, but in my opinion this is far outweighed by the enablement of single code line and regular metronomic releases.

The approach is also more challenging when altering the behaviour of an existing feature – sometimes requiring significant refactoring to introduce the switch. Sometimes we need to introduce a whole abstraction to be able to switch implementations – this is an enabler for significant ‘architectural refactorings’. This is referred to by Paul Hammant as Branch by Abstraction – and is a very powerful technique.

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